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Research papers

The information on this website is based on published scientific research. Some of the papers listed below are available on the Internet – search Google for the authors’ names and/or the title of the paper or search the PubMed database.

Last updated: April 2017

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A

Abedin P, Weaver JB, Egginton E. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: prevalence and ethnic distribution. Ethn Health 1999; 4: 35–7.

Abu-Hayyeh S, Papacleovoulou G, Lovgren-Sandblom A, Tahir M, Oduwole O, Jamaludin NA, Ravat S, Nikolova V, Chambers J, Selden C, Rees M, Marschall H-U, Parker MG, Williamson C. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy levels of sulfated progesterone metabolites inhibit farnesoid X receptor resulting in a cholestatic phenotype. Hepatology 2013; 57: 716–26.

Abu-Hayyeh S, Ovadia C, Lieu T, Jensen DD, Chambers J, Dixon PH, Lovgren-Sandblom A, Bolier R, Tolenaars D, Kremer AE, Syngelaki A, Noori M, Williams D, Marin JJG, Monte MJ, Nicolaides KH, Beuers U, Oude-Elferink R, Seed PT, Chappell L, Marschall H-U, Bunnett NW, Williamson C. Prognostic and mechanistic potential of progesterone sulfates in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and pruritus gravidarum. Hepatology 2015; doi: 10.1002/hep.28265.

Abu-Hayyeh S, Martinez-Becerra P, Sheikh Abdul Kadir S, Selden C, Romero M, Rees M, Marschall HU, Marin JJ, Williamson C. Inhibition of Na+-taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide-mediated bile acid transport by cholestatic sulfated progesterone metabolites. J Biol Chem 2010; 285 16504–12.

Alemi F, Kwon E, Poole DP, et al. The TGR5 receptor mediates bile acid-induced itch and analgesia. J Clin Invest 2013; 123: 1513–30.

Al Inizi S, Gupta R, Gale A. Fetal tachyarrhythmia with atrial flutter in obstetric cholestasis. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2006; 93: 53–4.

Al Shobaili HA, Hamed HO, Al Robaee A, Alzolibani AA, Amin AF, Ahmad SR. Obstetrical and fetal outcomes of a new management strategy in patients with intra-hepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2011; 283: 1219–25.

Alsulyman OM, Ouzounian JG, Ames-Castro M, Goodwin TM. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: perinatal outcome associated with expectant management. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1996; 175: 957–60.

Altshuler G, Hyde S. Meconium-induced vasocontraction: a potential cause of cerebral and other fetal hypoperfusion and of poor pregnancy outcome. J Child Neurol 1989; 4: 137–42.

Altug N, Kirbas A, Daglar K, Biberoglu E, Uygur D, Danisman N. Drug resistant fetal arrhythmia in obstetric cholestasis. Case Rep Obstet Gynecol 2015: 890802.

Ammälä P, Kariniemi V. Short-term variability of fetal heart rate in cholestasis of pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1981; 141: 217–20.

Arrese M, Reyes H. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: a past and present riddle. Ann Hepatol 2006; 5: 202–5.

Ataalla WM, Ziada DH, Gaber R, et al. The impact of total bile acid levels on fetal cardiac function in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy using fetal echocardiography: a tissue Doppler imaging study. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2016; 29: 1445–50.

Atabey S, Duvan CI, Eren U, Turhan NO. Intrahepatic cholestasis and eclampsia: a case report. Hypertens Pregnancy 2007; 26: 363–9.

Aytaç S, Kargili A, Türkay C. A prolonged gestational intrahepatic cholestasis: a case report. Turk J Gastroenterol 2006; 17: 206–8.

Azzaroli F, Mennone A, Feletti V, Simoni P, Baglivo E, Montagnani M, Rizzo N, Pelusi G, DE Aloysio D, Lodato F, Festi D, Colecchia A, Roda E, Boyer JL, Mazzella G. Clinical trial: modulation of human placental multidrug resistance proteins in cholestasis of pregnancy by ursodeoxycholic acid. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2007; 26: 1139–46.

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B

Bachs L, Parés A, Elena M, Piera C, Rodés J. Comparison of rifampicin with phenobarbitone for treatment of pruritus in biliary cirrhosis. Lancet 1989; 1: 574–6.

Bachs L, Parés A, Elena M, Piera C, Rodés J. Effects of long-term rifampicin administration in primary biliary cirrhosis. Gastroenterology 1992; 102: 2077–80.

Bacq Y, Myara A, Brechot MC, Hamon C, Studer E, Trivin F, Metman EH. Serum conjugated bile acid profile during intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. J Hepatol 1995; 22: 66–70.

Bacq Y, Sapey T, Bréchot MC, Pierre F, Fignon A, Dubois F. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: a French prospective study. Hepatology 1997; 26: 358–64.

Bacq Y, Zarka O, Bréchot JF, Mariotte N, Vol S, Tichet J, Weill J. Liver function tests in normal pregnancy: a prospective study of 103 pregnant women and 103 matched controls. Hepatology 1996; 23: 1030–4.

Bacq Y, Sentilhes L, Reyes H, Glantz A, Kondrackiene J, Binder T, Nicastri PL, Locatelli A, Floreani A, Hernandez I, Di Martino V. Efficacy of ursodeoxycholic acid in treating intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: a meta-analysis. Gastroenterology 2012; 143: 1492–501.

Balchin I, Whittaker JC, Lamont RF, Steer PJ. Maternal and fetal characteristics associated with meconium-stained amniotic fluid. Obstet Gynecol 2011; 117: 828–35.

Baliutaviciene D, Zubruviene N, Zalinkevicius R. Pregnancy outcome in cases of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2011; 112: 250–1.

Barth A, Klinger G, Rost M. Influence of ethinyloestradiol propanolsulphonate on serum bile acids in healthy volunteers. Exp Toxicol Pathol 2003; 54: 381–6.

Beckett GJ, Hayes JD. Glutathione S-transferases: biomedical applications. Adv Clin Chem 1993; 30: 281–380.

Benifla JL, Dumont M, Levardon M, Foucher E, Cadiot G, Crenn-Hebert C, Heid M, Lelaidier C, Rosenbaum A, Bernuau J, Erlinger S, Frydman R, Madelenat P. [Effects of micronized natural progesterone on the liver during the third trimester of pregnancy] Contracept Fertil Sex 1997; 25: 165–9.

Berg B, Helm G, Petersohn L, Tryding N. Cholestasis of pregnancy. Clinical and laboratory studies. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1986; 65: 107–13.

Berkane N, Cocheton JJ, Brehier D, Merviel P, Wolf C, Lefèvre G, Uzan S. Ursodeoxycholic acid in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. A retrospective study of 19 cases. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2000; 79: 941–6.

Biberoglu EH, Kirbas A, Kirbas O, et al. Prediction of cardiovascular risk by electrocardiographic changes in women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2015; 28: 2239–43.

Biberoglu E, Kirbas A, Daglar K, Kara O, Karabulut E, Yakut HI, Danisman N. Role of inflammation in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2016; Jan 19. doi: 10.1111/jog.12902.

Binder T, Salaj P, Zima T, Vitek L Randomized prospective comparative study of ursodeoxycholic acid and S-adenosyl-L-methionine in the treatment of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. J Perinat Med 2006; 34: 383–91.

Blazquez AG, Briz O, Romero MR, Rosales R, Monte MJ, Vaquero J, Macias RI, Cassio D, Marin JJ. Characterization of the role of ABCG2 as a bile acid transporter in liver and placenta. Mol Pharmacol 2012; 81: 273–83.

Bloom SL, Sheffield JS, McIntire DD, Leveno KJ. Antenatal dexamethasone and decreased birth weight. Obstet Gynecol 2001; 97: 485–90.

Boelsterli UA, Rakhit G, Balazs T. Modulation by S-adenosyl-L-methionine of hepatic Na+,K+-ATPase, membrane fluidity, and bile flow in rats with ethinyl estradiol-induced cholestasis. Hepatology 1983; 3: 12–17.

Bonfirraro G, Chieffi O, Quinti R, Tedesco R, LeGrazie C, Bortolini M. S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe)-induced amelioration of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Results of an open study. Drug Invest 1990; 2: 125–8.

Brites D. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: changes in maternal-fetal bile acid balance and improvement by ursodeoxycholic acid. Ann Hepatol 2002; 1: 20–8.

Brites D, El-Mir MY, Oliveira N, Marín JJG. Amniotic fluid bile acid changes in the course of ursodeoxycholic acid therapy in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy [Abstract]. J Hepatol 1997; 26: 164A.

Brites D, El-Mir MY, Rodrigues CMP, van-Zeller H, Marín JJG. Bile acid composition of amniotic fluid and maternal serum in cholestasis of pregnancy and effect of ursodeoxycholic acid [Abstract]. J Hepatol 1998; 28: 125A.

Brites D, Rodrigues CM. Elevated levels of bile acids in colostrum of patients with cholestasis of pregnancy are decreased following ursodeoxycholic acid therapy [see comments] J Hepatol 1998; 29: 743–51.

Brites D, Rodrigues CM, Oliveira N, Cardoso M, Graça LM. Correction of maternal serum bile acid profile during ursodeoxycholic acid therapy in cholestasis of pregnancy. J Hepatol 1998; 28: 91–8.

Brites D, Rodrigues CM, Cardoso Mda C, Graca LM. Unusual case of severe cholestasis of pregnancy with early onset, improved by ursodeoxycholic acid administration. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1998; 76: 165–8.

Brites D, Rodrigues CM, van-Zeller H, Brito A, Silva R. Relevance of serum bile acid profile in the diagnosis of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy in an high incidence area: Portugal. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1998; 80: 31–8.

Briz O, Serrano MA, MacIas RI, Gonzalez-Gallego J, Marin JJ Role of organic anion-transporting polypeptides, OATP-A, OATP-C and OATP-8, in the human placenta-maternal liver tandem excretory pathway for foetal bilirubin. Biochem J 2003; 371: 897–905.

Brouwers L, Koster MP, Page-Christiaens GC, Kemperman H, Boon J, Evers IM, Bogte A, Oudijk MA. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: maternal and fetal outcomes associated with elevated bile acid levels. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2015; 212: 100 e101-7.

Brown ES. Aspiration and lung surfactant. Anesth Analg 1967; 46: 665–72.

Bull LN, Hu D, Shah S, et al. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) in U.S. Latinas and Chileans: Clinical features, ancestry analysis, and admixture mapping. PLoS One 2015; 10: e0131211.

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C

Cabrerizo R, Castano GO, Burgueno AL, et al. Promoter DNA methylation of farnesoid X receptor and pregnane X receptor modulates the intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy phenotype. PLoS One 2014; 9: e87697.

Campos GA, Castillo RJ, Toro FG. Effect of bile acids on the myometral contractility of the isolated pregnant uterus Rev Chil Obstet Ginecol 1988; 53: 229–33.

Campos GA, Guerra FA, Israel EJ. Effects of cholic acid infusion in fetal lambs. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1986; 65: 23–6.

Carter J. Serum bile acids in normal pregnancy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1991; 98: 540–3.

Castaño G, Lucangioli S, Sookoian S, Mesquida M, Lemberg A, Di Scala M, Franchi P, Carducci C, Tripodi V. Bile acid profiles by capillary electrophoresis in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Clin Sci (Lond) 2006; 110: 459–65.

Castaño G, Burgueno A, Fernandez Gianotti T, Pirola CJ, Sookoian S. The influence of common gene variants of the xenobiotic receptor (PXR) in genetic susceptibility to intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2010; 31: 583–92.

Centre TNI. Hospital Episode Statistics – NHS Maternity Statistics 2011.

Chappell LC, Gurung V, Seed PT, Chambers J, Williamson C, Thornton JG. Ursodeoxycholic acid versus placebo, and early term delivery versus expectant management, in women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: semifactorial randomised clinical trial. BMJ 2012; 344 doi: 10.1136/bmj.e3799.

Chen Z, Ma X, Zhao Y, Wang J, Zhang Y, Li J, Wang R, Zhu Y, Wang L, Xiao X. Yinchenhao decoction in the treatment of cholestasis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Ethnopharmacol 2015; 168: 208–16.

Chen Y, Vasilenko A, Song X, et al. Estrogen and estrogen receptor-alpha-mediated transrepression of bile salt export pump. Mol Endocrinol 2015; 29: 613–26.

Colombo C, Roda A, Roda E, Buscaglia M, dell’Agnola CA, Filippetti P, Ronchi M, Sereni F. Correlation between fetal and maternal serum bile acid concentrations. Pediatr Res 1985; 19: 227–31.

Costoya AL, Leontic EA, Rosenberg HG, Delgado MA. Morphological study of placental terminal villi in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: histochemistry, light and electron microscopy. Placenta 1980; 1: 361–8.

Cousens S, Blencowe H, Stanton C, Chou D, Ahmed S, Steinhardt L, Creanga AA, Tunçalp O, Balsara ZP, Gupta S, Say L, Lawn JE. National, regional, and worldwide estimates of stillbirth rates in 2009 with trends since 1995: a systematic analysis. Lancet 2011; 377: 1319–30.

Crocenzi FA, Mottino AD, Cao J, Veggi LM, Pozzi EJ, Vore M, Coleman R, Roma MG. Estradiol-17beta-D-glucuronide induces endocytic internalization of Bsep in rats. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2003; 285: G449–G459.

Cui T, Liu Y, Men X, Xu Z, Wu L, Liu S, Xing A. Bile acid transport correlative protein mRNA expression profile in human placenta with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Saudi Med J 2009; 30: 1406–10.

Cynamon HA, Andres JM, Iafrate RP Rifampin relieves pruritus in children with cholestatic liver disease. Gastroenterology 1990; 98: 1013–16.

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D

Dann AT, Kenyon AP, Seed PT, Poston L, Shennan AH, Tribe RM. Glutathione S-transferase and liver function in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and pruritus gravidarum. Hepatology 2004; 40: 1406–14.

Dann AT, Kenyon AP, Wierzbicki AS, Seed PT, Shennan AH, Tribe RM. Plasma lipid profiles of women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 2006; 107: 106–14.

Davies MH, da Silva RC, Jones SR, Weaver JB, Elias E. Fetal mortality associated with cholestasis of pregnancy and the potential benefit of therapy with ursodeoxycholic acid. Gut 1995; 37: 580–4.

DeLeon A, De Oliveira GS, Kalayil M, Narang S, McCarthy RJ, Wong CA. The incidence of coagulopathy in pregnant patients with intrahepatic cholestasis: should we delay or avoid neuraxial analgesia? J Clin Anesth 2014; 26: 623–7.

de Vree JM, Jacquemin E, Sturm E, Cresteil D, Bosma PJ, Aten J, Deleuze JF, Desrochers M, Burdelski M, Bernard O, Oude Elferink RP, Hadchouel M. Mutations in the MDR3 gene cause progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998; 95: 282–7.

Diac M, Kenyon A, Nelson-Piercy C, Girling J, Cheng F, Tribe RM, Goodman J, Shennan A, Williamson C. Dexamethasone in the treatment of obstetric cholestasis: a case series. J Obstet Gynaecol 2006; 26: 110–14.

Diaferia A, Nicastri PL, Tartagni M, Loizzi P, Iacovizzi C, Di Leo A. Ursodeoxycholic acid therapy in pregnant women with cholestasis. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1996; 52: 133–40.

Dixon PH, van Mil SW, Chambers J, Strautnieks S, Thompson RJ, Lammert F, Kubitz R, Keitel V, Glantz A, Mattsson LA, Marschall HU, Molokhia M, Moore GE, Linton KJ, Williamson C. Contribution of variant alleles of ABCB11 to susceptibility to intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Gut 2009; 58: 537–44.

Dixon PH, Weerasekera N, Linton KJ, Donaldson O, Chambers J, Egginton E, Weaver J, Nelson-Piercy C, de Swiet M, Warnes G, Elias E, Higgins CF, Johnston DG, McCarthy MI, Williamson C. Heterozygous MDR3 missense mutation associated with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: evidence for a defect in protein trafficking. Hum Mol Genet 2000; 9: 1209–17.

Dixon PH, Wadsworth CA, Chambers J, Donnelly J, Cooley S, Buckley R, Mannino R, Jarvis S, Syngelaki A, Geenes V, Paul P, Sothinathan M, Kubitz R, Lammert F, Tribe RM, Ch'ng CL, Marschall HU, Glantz A, Khan SA, Nicolaides K, Whittaker J, Geary M, Williamson C. A comprehensive analysis of common genetic variation around six candidate loci for intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Am J Gastroenterol 2014; 109(1): 76–84. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2013.406.

Dixon PH, Williamson C. The molecular genetics of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Obstet Med 2008; 1: 65–71.

Dixon PH, Williamson C. The pathophysiology of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 2016; 40(2): 141–53. doi: 10.1016/j.clinre.2015.12.008.

Dodampahala SH, Pieris H, Chandrasena LG, Jayakody S, Gunathilaka C, Wijayaratne CN, Dodampahala GSK, Meegahawatta AR. Presence of obstetric cholestasis in mothers presenting with pruritus in pregnancy: in a low resource South Asian setting. Adv Reprod Sci 2016; 4(2): 37–45. DOI: 10.4236/arsci.2016.42006.

Dolinsky BM, Zelig CM, Paonessa DJ, et al. Effect of taurocholic acid on fetoplacental arterial pressures in a dual perfusion placental cotyledon model: A novel approach to intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. J Reprod Med 2014; 59: 367–70.

Dong M, Xie X, Wang Z, He J, Zhou J, Cheng Q. Impaired mixed lymphocyte reaction in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Gynecol Obstet Invest 2002; 54: 191–5.

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E

Eliakim M, Sadovsky E, Stein O, Shenkar YG. Recurrent cholestatic jaundice of pregnancy. Report of five cases and electron microscopic observations. Arch Intern Med 1966; 117: 696–705.

Eloranta ML, Heiskanen J, Hiltunen M, Helisalmi S, Mannermaa A, Heinonen S. Apolipoprotein E alleles in women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Scand J Gastroenterol 2000; 35: 966–8.

Eloranta ML, Häkli T, Hiltunen M, Helisalmi S, Punnonen K, Heinonen S. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms of the bile salt export pump gene with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Scand J Gastroenterol 2003; 38: 648–52.

Eloranta ML, Heinonen S, Kirkinen P. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy has no effect on maternal serum second trimester alpha-fetoprotein and hCG. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2000; 79: 548–52.

Eloranta ML, Heinonen S, Mononen T, Saarikoski S. Risk of obstetric cholestasis in sisters of index patients. Clin Genet 2001; 60: 42–5.

Eloranta ML, Heiskanen JT, Hiltunen MJ, Mannermaa AJ, Punnonen KR, Heinonen ST. Multidrug resistance 3 gene mutation 1712delT and estrogen receptor alpha gene polymorphisms in Finnish women with obstetric cholestasis. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2002; 105: 132–5.

Estiú MC, Monte MJ, Rivas L, et al. Effect of ursodeoxycholic acid treatment on the altered progesterone and bile acid homeostasis in the mother-placenta-foetus trio during cholestasis of pregnancy. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2015; 79: 316–29.

Estiú MC, Frailuna MA, Otero C, Dericco M, Williamson C, Marin JJG, et al. Relationship between early onset severe intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and higher risk of meconium-stained fluid. PLoS ONE 2017; 12(4): e0176504. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0176504.

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F

Falconer JD, Smith AN, Eastwood MA. The effects of bile acids on colonic motility in the rabbit. Q J Exp Physiol Cogn Med Sci 1980; 65: 135–44.

Fan X, Zhou Q, Zeng S, et al. Impaired fetal myocardial deformation in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. J Ultrasound Med 2014; 33: 1171–7.

Fisk NM, Bye WB, Storey GN. Maternal features of obstetric cholestasis: 20 years experience at King George V Hospital. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 1988; 28: 172–6.

Fisk NM, Storey GN. Fetal outcome in obstetric cholestasis. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1988; 95: 1137–43.

Fitzpatrick KE, Kurinczuk JJ, Alfirevic Z, Spark P, Brocklehurst P, Knight M. Uterine rupture by intended mode of delivery in the UK: a national case-control study. PLoS Med 2012; 9: e1001184.

Floreani A, Paternoster D, Melis A, Grella PV. S-adenosylmethionine versus ursodeoxycholic acid in the treatment of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: preliminary results of a controlled trial. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1996; 67: 109–13.

Floreani A, Carderi I, Paternoster D, Soardo G, Azzaroli F, Esposito W, Variola A, Tommasi AM, Marchesoni D, Braghin C, Mazzella G. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: three novel MDR3 gene mutations. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2006; 23: 1649–53.

Floreani A, Carderi I, Paternoster D, Soardo G, Azzaroli F, Esposito W, Montagnani M, Marchesoni D, Variola A, Rosa Rizzotto E, Braghin C, Mazzella G. Hepatobiliary phospholipid transporter ABCB4, MDR3 gene variants in a large cohort of Italian women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Dig Liver Dis 2008; 40: 366–70.

Floreani A, Paternoster D, Grella V, Sacco S, Gangemi M, Chiaramonte M. Ursodeoxycholic acid in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1994; 101: 64–5.

Frezza M. A meta-analysis of therapeutic trials with ademetionine in the treatment of intrahepatic cholestasis. Ann Ital Med Int 1993; 8 Suppl: 48S–51S.

Frezza M, Centini G, Cammareri G, Le Grazie C, Di Padova C. S-adenosylmethionine for the treatment of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Results of a controlled clinical trial. Hepatogastroenterology 1990; 37 Suppl 2: 122–5.

Frezza M, Pozzato G, Chiesa L, Stramentinoli G, di Padova C. Reversal of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy in women after high dose S-adenosyl-L-methionine administration. Hepatology 1984; 4: 274–8.

Frezza M, Tritapepe R, Pozzato G, Di Padova C. Prevention of S-adenosylmethionine of estrogen-induced hepatobiliary toxicity in susceptible women. Am J Gastroenterol 1988; 83: 1098–102.

Fulton IC, Douglas JG, Hutchon DJ, Beckett GJ. Is normal pregnancy cholestatic? Clin Chim Acta 1983; 130: 171–6.

Furhoff AK. Itching in pregnancy. A 15-year follow-up study. Acta Med Scand 1974; 196: 403–10.

Furrer R, Winter K, Schäffer L, Zimmermann R, Burkhardt T, Haslinger C. Postpartum blood loss in women treated for intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 2016; 128(5): 1048–52. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000001693.

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G

Garoff L. Prediction of fetal outcome by urinary estriol, maternal serum placental lactogen, and alpha-fetoprotein in diabetes and hepatosis of pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 1976; 48: 659–66.

Geenes V, Williamson C. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. World J Gastroenterol 2009; 15(17): 2049–66.

Geenes VL, Dixon PH, Chambers J, Raguz S, Marin JJ, Bhakoo KK, Williamson C. Characterisation of the nuclear receptors FXR, PXR and CAR in normal and cholestatic placenta. Placenta 2011 Jul; 32(7): 535–7. doi: 10.1016/j.placenta.2011.04.014.

Geenes VL, Lim YH, Bowman N, Tailor H, Dixon PH, Chambers J, Brown L, Wyatt-Ashmead J, Bhakoo K, Williamson C. A placental phenotype for intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Placenta 2011; 32: 1026–32.

Geenes V, Lovgren-Sandblom A, Benthin L, et al. The reversed feto-maternal bile acid gradient in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is corrected by ursodeoxycholic acid. PLoS One 2014; 9: e83828.

Geenes V, Chappell LC, Seed PT, Steer PJ, Knight M, Williamson C. Association of severe intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy with adverse pregnancy outcomes: A prospective population-based case-control study. Hepatology 2014; 59: 1482–91.

Geenes V, Chambers J, Khurana R, Shemer EW, Sia W, Mandair D, Elias E, Marschall HU, Hague W, Williamson C. Rifampicin in the treatment of severe intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2015; 189: 59–63.

Geenes V, Williamson C, Chappell LC. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 18(4): 273–81. dx.doi.org/10.1111/tog.12308.

Geier A, Dietrich CG, Gerloff T, Haendly J, Kullak-Ublick GA, Stieger B, Meier PJ, Matern S, Gartung C. Regulation of basolateral organic anion transporters in ethinylestradiol-induced cholestasis in the rat. Biochim Biophys Acta 2003; 1609: 87–94.

Gendrot C, Bacq Y, Brechot MC, Lansac J, Andres C. A second heterozygous MDR3 nonsense mutation associated with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. J Med Genet 2003; 40: e32.

Germain AM, Kato S, Carvajal JA, Valenzuela GJ, Valdes GL, Glasinovic JC. Bile acids increase response and expression of human myometrial oxytocin receptor. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003; 189: 577–82.

Ghent CN, Carruthers SG Treatment of pruritus in primary biliary cirrhosis with rifampin. Results of a double-blind, crossover, randomized trial. Gastroenterology 1988; 94: 488–93.

Ghent CN, Bloomer JR, Klatskin G. Elevations in skin tissue levels of bile acids in human cholestasis: relation to serum levels and to pruritus. Gastroenterology 1977; 73: 1125–1130.

Girling JC, Dow E, Smith JH. Liver function tests in preeclampsia: importance of comparison with a reference range derived for normal pregnancy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1997; 104: 246–50.

Glantz A, Marschall HU, Lammert F, Mattsson LA. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial comparing dexamethasone and ursodeoxycholic acid. Hepatology 2005; 42: 1399–405.

Glantz A, Marschall HU, Mattsson LA. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: Relationships between bile acid levels and fetal complication rates. Hepatology 2004; 40: 467–74.

Glantz A, Reilly SJ, Benthin L, Lammert F, Mattsson LA, Marschall HU. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: Amelioration of pruritus by UDCA is associated with decreased progesterone disulphates in urine. Hepatology 2008; 47: 544–51.

Gonzalez MC, Reyes H, Arrese M, Figueroa D, Lorca B, Andresen M, Segovia N, Molina C, Arce S. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy in twin pregnancies. J Hepatol 1989; 9: 84–90.

Gorelik J, Shevchuk AI, Diakonov I, de Swiet M, Lab M, Korchev Y, Williamson C. Dexamethasone and ursodeoxycholic acid protect against the arrhythmogenic effect of taurocholate in an in vitro study of rat cardiomyocytes. BJOG 2003; 110: 467–74.

Goulis DG, Walker IA, de Swiet M, Redman CW, Williamson C. Preeclampsia with abnormal liver function tests is associated with cholestasis in a subgroup of cases. Hypertens Pregnancy 2004; 23: 19–27.

Grand'Maison S, Durand M, Mahone M. The effects of ursodeoxycholic acid treatment for intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy on maternal and fetal outcomes: a meta-analysis including non-randomized studies. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2014; 36: 632–41.

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